Lidiane Gonçalves do Nascimento, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Ane Polline Lacerda Protasio, Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro, Bianca Marques Santiago, Roberto Cameriere
Dental age (DA) estimation is an extensively investigated resource used by forensic science. This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the Measurement of Open Apices for DA estimation in north east Brazilians. A total of 429 orthopantomographs of individuals aged 5 to 14.99 years were used. The sample was distributed according to the age groups 5-6.99, 7-8.99, 9-10.99, 11-12.99 and 13-14.99 years, and the data were analyzed descriptively and by linear regression (α= 5%). The majority of the radiographs were from females (n = 241; 56.2%), with an overall mean age of 12 years (± 2.12). A significant difference was obser ved between DA and chronological age (CA) in the total sample and specifically in females and males. The method underestimated CA by 0.31 year (total sample) and by 0.3 and 0.32 year in females and males, respectively. In contrast, the method overestimated CA in the groups 5-6.99 and 7-8.99 years, with a mean difference (MD) of 0.48 year (p = 0.007) and 0.17 year (p = 0.182), respectively. In the other groups, DA was predicted to be below CA, with a significant difference in the group 13-14.99 (0.75 year). Based on the regression analysis, a correction factor was proposed from the original formula for this population, thereby reaching a predictive power of approximately 80%. To conclude, this method is applicable to the study population aged 5 to 13 years as the estimates obtained did not exceed the error limit of ±1 year.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2020, 38; 2-2:11)
Vibhuti Shreesh Mhatre, Jigna Pathak, Shilpa Patel, Leela S. Poonja, Niharika Swain, Kamlesh Dekate, Amit Bhandarwar
Aim: To analyze the morphological parameters of palatal rugae in a population of Maharashtrian ancestry. Material and methods: This study was conducted on 1000 subjects of Maharashtrian ancestry with at least 3 generations on the mother’s and father’s side. Their palatal impressions were obtained with alginate and the casts were analyzed for length, shape and direction of palatal rugae. Results: Our results showed that the most predominant rugae were primary followed by secondary and fragmentary with significant differences between them. The most prevalent rugae shapes found were straight followed by wavy followed by curved with significant differences between them. According to direction, forward rugae were significantly higher than perpendicular rugae and backward rugae. Conclusion: The rugae are considered to have population specific configurations. This baseline data of patterns of palatal rugae in a sample of Maharashtrian ancestry may serve `as an accessory tool’ for population identification in Forensic Dentistry.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2020, 38; 2-12:21)
Sultan Omer Sheriff, Rama Haranath Reddy Medapati, Srikanth Aryasri Ankisetti, Venkat Ram Reddy Gurrala, Haritha K., Swethasree Pulijala, Sudheer B. Balla
The goal of long term research on age assessment is to focus on the strengths and weaknesses of existing reliable methods of age estimation. In cases of age estimation when all teeth are present, maximum accuracy can be obtained using a 7 tooth model. Demirjian’s system and Willems models require all seven mandibular teeth in the lower left quadrant for age assessment. Unfortunately, these methods cannot be applied in children with hypodontia. In 2019, Bedek et al., from Croatia, developed new models of age estimation based on a combination of one to seven mandibular teeth. In the present study, we tested the accuracy of the newly developed models for age estimation in South Indian children. Tested in parallel with Willems models, the accuracy of the new models was tested in terms of mean difference, mean absolute error (MAE) and percentage of correct estimations within intervals of +0.5 and +1 years. In terms of mean difference between chronological age (CA) and estimated dental age (DA), all models along with Willems models have underestimated the CA except Bedek et al’s 6 tooth model where overestimation of CA was seen in boys. For MAE and percentage of correct estimations, the new models performed better than Willems models. With regards to our results, it can be concluded that the new models for dental age calculation are accurate and suitable. Therefore, we may encourage their use for age estimation in South Indian children, particularly in individuals with hypodontia or when multiple teeth are missing.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2020, 38; 2-22:39)
Susana Braga, Maria Lurdes Pereira, Benedita Sampaio-Maia, Inês Morais Caldas
Lip print patterns are referred to as unique to each individual, but controversy exists surrounding twins. In this study, the lip prints of 19 pairs of monozygotic and 47 pairs of dizygotic twins were studied. The left lower lip was photographed and the furrows were classified using Renaud’s classification. Results showed the same lip pattern was found only in one monozygotic pair (5.3%) and in 4 dizygotic pairs (8.5%), and no significant statistical differences were found between groups (p>0.05). In monozygotic twins only type C furrows presence displayed statistical significant differences (p=0.034). As for dizygotic twins, there were statistical significant differences in the frequency of type A (p=0.005) and type G furrows (p=0.018). As for the most common types, both groups displayed a higher prevalence of vertical furrows (type B: 97.4% and 96.8%, type A: 86.8% and 87.2%, in monozygotic and dizygotic, respectively). The least frequent furrow type was type I and type E in monozygotic (2.6% and 5.3%, respectively) and types E, F and I, in dizygotic (6.4%, 7.4%. and 7.4%, respectively). Our results seem to point out that lip print patterns should be useful carefully in twins’ identification.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2020, 38; 2-40:46)
Falak Murad Shah Syed, Suman Shoro, Scheila Mânica
Background: Forensic Odontology (FO) still strives for recognition in some countries such as Pakistan. Natural and man-made disasters, along with child abuse cases and age estimation for child marriages and juvenile imprisonments in Pakistan justify its applicability. Aims: This study investigated the awareness, information, training, practice and interest in FO in dental professionals in Pakistan. Another aim was to design tools to deliver primary knowledge about FO and emphasize the importance of dental records. Methodology: A 10 question paper-based survey was distributed among 560 dental professionals and postgraduates of 14 public dental institutes/hospitals in Pakistan. The results were quantitatively analyzed by graphs using Microsoft Excel (version 16.22). An educational video and an information leaflet were produced after the survey was undertaken to explain the scope of FO and the importance of dental records respectively. Results: 476 dentists (51%, 49 %) aged 20 – 50+ years responded and 98.53% confirmed that FO was not taught in the dental schools. 66% were aware of the field and 62% were only informed. 99% were not trained and 89.7% were not working in this field; however, 89% were interested in training within Pakistan. Considering dental charts, 60.92% do not produce detailed charts but 55% maintain them and the majority do so manually. Radiographs were the most stored type. Conclusions: Most dentists are aware of the existence of FO, but they need to acknowledge the significance of dental record keeping and encourage implementation of FO. Regardless of the absence of any governing body for FO and negligible education, training and implementation in Pakistan, this field is gradually progressing. The authorities should introduce detailed guidelines for recording, managing and storing dental records. They should ensure the future acknowledgement of this subject in the education system and assign forensic odontologists to the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) team.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2020, 38; 2-47:56)
Talita Lima de Castro Espicalsky, Patricia Freitas, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Melina Calmon, Eduardo Daruge Júnior, Ana Claudia Rossi
The study of palatal rugae is shown to be scientifically valid to human identification due to the unique number and style of the palatal ridges. Dentures provide an array of data and specifics that allow for the individualization of their wearers. This article describes the identification of edentulous, skeletonized remains through the analysis of the palatal rugae printed on the complete upper denture and subsequent comparison with the palatal rugae of an old complete denture of an unknown missing person. The analyses focus on the form, classification, location, and size of the palatal rugae which, in conjunction with the information obtained from the anthropological examination, resulted in a positive identification of the cadaver. This method has a significant impact on the identification process, particularly when other identification methodologies and techniques cannot be implemented. This case report highlights the importance of palatal rugae in human identification in cases of edentulous cadavers.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2020, 38; 2-57:62)