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Reliability of determining the age of majority: a comparison between measurement of open apices of third molars and Demirjian stages
Preeti Sharma ,Vijay Wadhwan, Neeraj Sharma
Aim: This study examines the open apices of third molars in discriminating between individuals who are or are not 18 years of age or older and to assign a cut-off for estimation of the age of 18 years. Furthermore, this method was compared to those based on Demirjian’s stages 8 and 9.Methodology: Orthopantomographs (OPGs) of 1062 individuals (14 and 23 years) were assessed, to verify Cameriere’s third molar maturity index (I3M). The apical ends of the roots of the left mandibular third molar were analysed. Mineralization of the third molar was also evaluated.
Results: A cut-off value of I3M =0.08 was taken. The sensitivity of this test was 70.76% and specificity was 82%. The results of the test showed a better specificity for Stage 9 and better sensitivity for stage 8 for adult age. Accuracy was 74.58% for third molar maturity index as compared to 72.41% for stage 9.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2018;36;2:2-9)
Accuracy of age estimation in 6-21 year old South Indian population – A comparative analysis of clinical and radiographic methods
Sivasankari Periyakaruppan, Manasa Anand Meundi, Chaya Manoranjini David
Unavailability of chronological age brings to the forefront the importance of age estimation for human identification. Dental age is routinely assessed based on the calcification stages and/or the eruption of teeth, which exhibit wide variations amongst different ethnic groups. The current study aimed at estimating the dental ages in 384 South Indian subjects aged 6-21 years, using clinical and radiographic methods and comparing the predictive accuracy of these two dental age estimation methods. For the estimation of age by clinical method, Foti and co-workers’ mathematical Model 2 was employed and for the radiographic method, Chaillet and Demirjian’s method with Acharya’s Indian formula was used. The clinical method yielded a mean error in the range of -3.16 to 4.07 years and -1.83 to 4.32 years among male and female subjects respectively whereas the radiographic method yielded an error of -9.52 to 1.96 years among males and an error of -10.72 to 2.66 years in females. The mean absolute error for the entire sample obtained by clinical method was 0.80 years and by radiographic method was 0.89 years. We found that the clinical method had a better accuracy in estimating dental age of children and adolescents when compared to the radiographic method in South Indian (Karnataka) population. However, the difference between the two is negligible implying that either of the methods can be employed in clinical practice
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2018;36;2:10-19)
Colour stability of dental restorative materials submitted to conditions of burial and drowning, for forensic purposes
Sergio Augusto de Freitas Vincenti, Roberto Cesar Biancalana, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Fernanda De Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of earth and water on the colour stability of tooth-coloured dental restorative materials: composite resin (CR) and glass ionomer cement (GIC). Aiming to distinguish between one and another tooth-coloured material and to estimate the period in which they could be submitted to the factors earth and water, the proposed method may contribute to the proceedings of human identification of victims of burial and submersion in water. Forty bovine incisors were prepared (6 x 6 x 2mm) and restored with CR FiltekTM Z250 XT (3M ESPETM) and GIC KetacTM Fil Plus (3M ESPETM). After initial colour read-outs (VITATM Easyshade spectrophotometer), the samples were separated into two groups (n=10), according to the conditions to which they were submitted: simulations of burying and submersion in water, for periods of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, when new read-outs were taken. The values of colour change (ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, and Δb*) were subjected to 3-way ANOVA statistical analysis, repeated measures, Bonferroni (p<.05), and it was verified that both factors produced colour changes in the restorative materials, which were higher for glass ionomer cement (p<.05) after 12 months of burial, and 6 months of submersion in water. The authors concluded that the analysis of colour change in the material contributed to the forensic odontology casework depending on the time during which the victim was submitted to the condition of burial or submersion in water.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2018;36;2:20-30)
Radiographic evaluation of dental and cervical vertebral development for age estimation in a young Brazilian population
Alana de Cassia Silva Azevedo, Edgard Michel-Crosato, Maria Gabriela Haye Biazevic
Age estimation is guided by the evaluation of events that happen during the processes of bone and dental development. The purpose of this study was to validate the method of age estimation proposed by Lajolo et al. (2013) through oro-cervical radiographic indices in Brazilians. The study aimed to verify the effectiveness of age estimation equations through dental and cervical vertebrae examinations, in addition to including dental and cervical vertebrae data in new age estimation equations. The sample consisted of panoramic radiographs and teleradiographs from 510 subjects (8-24.9 years). Age estimation methods were applied by assessing the development of seven mandibular teeth, cervical vertebrae and third molars. Techniques used previously have been combinations of radiographic indices: Oro-Cervical Radiographic Simplified Score (OCRSS) and Oro-Cervical Radiographic Simplified Score without Wisdom Teeth (OCRSSWWT). In the second phase of the study, dental maturation, vertebral measurements, and real age were estimated by regression equations. OCRSS and OCRSSWWT had success rates of 67.4% (R2=0.64) and 70.8% (R2=0.62), respectively. When age estimation equations for tooth evaluations were applied, the average error was 1.3 years, and for cervical vertebrae measurements, the error was 1.9 years. When dental variables and the measurements of cervical vertebrae were included, the average error of equations was 1.0 year. Radiographic indices were easy to perform, and after adequate training, are reliable and can be used in forensic practice. The use of the new equations presented in this study is recommended because including cervical vertebrae and dental data provides greater accuracy for age estimation.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2018;36;2:31-39)
Taurodontism and its forensic value: a case report
Mário Marques Fernandes,Rhonan Ferreira Silva, Tessa De Lucena Botelho, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Vania Fontanella, Rogério Nogueira de Oliveira
Taurodontism is an anomaly that affects posterior teeth, vertically increasing the size of the pulp chamber, mimicking the shape of bovine teeth, being only evidenced in diagnostic images. This report describes a case of taurodontism in a mandibular second molar, highlighting the forensic importance of this dental anomaly with relevant potential for human identification, not only for its morphological aspect but also for its relatively low frequency in mandibular second molars. In the case under study, the individual did not have any restored teeth. Thus, the set of diverse imaging modalities is fundamental to identify the anatomy of teeth and roots, the only information that could be used in a hypothetical identification situation, assigning to this anomaly an exceptional relevance as a potential characteristic for positive identification
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2018;36;2:40-43)
The comparative palaeopathology of males and females in English medieval skeletal samples in asocial context