Puneeth HK, Nandini DB, Praveen SB, Selvamani M, Mandana D
BACKGROUND: Among various methods of age estimation using dental tissues, measurement of root dentin translucency (RDT) is said to be the most accurate. Numerous studies have estimated age by measuring RDT in single and double rooted teeth and have shown conflicting results. Only few studies have compared efficacy of using single and double rooted teeth for RDT measurement in age estimation.
AIM: To analyze the efficacy of single rooted teeth (SRT) and double rooted teeth (DRT) for measurement of sclerotic dentin (SD) and age estimation.
METHOD: Study was conducted on 120 freshly extracted SR and DR teeth with 60 teeth in each group. Ground sections of 150 µ thickness were observed under stereomicroscope and photographed. The sclerotic dentin length was measured on the images captured using image analysis software.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The present study did not reveal significant difference (p = 0.012) between SRT and DRT when RDT was used for age estimation. However DRT provided more accurate age estimation than SRT with less mean age difference.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2016;34;2:1-10)
Namiko Ishii1, Yohsuke Makino, Misuzu Fujita, Ayaka Sakuma, Suguru Torimitsu, Fumiko Chiba, Daisuke Yajima, Go Inokuchi, Ayumi Motomura, Hirotaro Iwase, Hisako Saitoh
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how the opening direction of the mental foramen (MF) changes with age in a Japanese population using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: Post-mortem MDCT scans of 121 Japanese subjects (66 males and 55 females) were carried out where all subjects possessed at least twenty teeth, including molar teeth, in the upper and lower jaws. Two angles of the mental foramen opening were measured, namely the superior-inferior angle in the coronal plane and anterior-posterior angle in the transverse plane, on the CT reconstructed images. The associations between age and these two angles were evaluated using a multiple regression analysis. Results: For male subjects, the relationship between the superior-inferior angle and age was a quadratic curve (p<0.001). This angle increased until the subject reached their early 50s and then the angle decreased with age. In the transverse plane, there was a linear relation between the anterior-posterior angle and age (p=0.002).It was noted also that the angle decreased with age. By contrast, however, no significant associations between the two angles and age for either measurement were noted for female subjects. This study demonstrated that the opening direction of the mental foramen changes with age in Japanese male subjects. By contrast this change in the opening direction of the mental foramen was not demonstrated in Japanese female subjects. In male subjects, the opening direction moves superiorly until the individual reaches their early 50s, and then moves inferiorly with advancing age. It also shifts from a posterior to an anterior position with age. Conclusion: These observed change differ from the results of previous studies. The findings could be useful for forensic science as they demonstrate a change in the position of mental foramen in a sample of contemporaneous male Japanese subjects.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2016;34;2:11-20)
Sapna Hegde, Kanksha Shah, Uma Dixit
Dental age determination methods that require the assessment of all teeth are tedious and time-consuming. Adapted methods that assess fewer teeth may be more easily applicable. The present study compared the applicability of two adapted Häävikko methods which evaluate seven mandibular teeth (HAM1) and four reference teeth (HAM2) in a population of 5 to 15 year-old Indian children. The HAM1 method underestimated age by -0.17 ± 0.80 years, -0.29 ± 0.83 years and -0.22 ± 0.82 years in boys, girls and the total sample respectively, while the HAM2 method underestimated age by -0.34 ± 0.88 years, -0.51 ± 0.82 years and -0.41 ± 0.86 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Significant gender-based differences were observed in mean DA-CA with both methods (p < 0.05). While both methods could be used for age estimation of the present population, the HAM1 method was the more accurate of the two.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2016;34;2:21-34)
Talia Yolanda Marroquin Penaloza, Shalmira Karkhanis, Sigrid Ingeborg Kvaal, Sivabalan Vasudavan, Edwin Castelblanco, Estie Kruger, Marc Tennant
Objective: To test the variability of the volume measurements when different segmentation methods are applied in pulp volume reconstruction. Materials and methods: Osirix® and ITK-SNAP software were used. Different segmentation methods (Part A) and volume approaches (Part B) were tested in a sample of 21 dental CBCT’s from upper canines. Different combinations of the data set were also tested on one lower molar and one upper canine (Part C) to determine the variability of the results when automatic segmentation is performed. Results: Although the obtained results show correlation among them(r>0.75), there is no evidence that these methods are sensitive enough to detect small volume changes in structures such as the dental pulp canal (Part A and Part B). Automatic segmentation is highly susceptible to be affected by small variations in the setting parameters (Part C). Conclusions: Although the volumetric reconstruction and pulp/tooth volume ratio has not shown better results than methods based on dental radiographs, it is worth to persevere with the research in this area with new development in imaging techniques.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2016;34;2:35-46)
Vilma Pinchi, Viola Bartolini, Elisabetta Bertol, Martina Focardi, Francesco Mari, Ugo Ricci, Stefano Vanin, Gian-Aristide Norelli
The article presents a case of multiple casualties following a textile factory fire. The incident required a full DVI team similar to large mass-disaster because of the specific operational aspects and identification difficulties. The autopsy results were consistent with death by fire and the toxicological investigations revealed carbon monoxide poisoning in four cases (HbCO% ranging between 88,05 and 95,77), two deaths by cyanide intoxication (with concentrations between 5,17 and 8,85 mcg/ml), and in one case there was a synergistic effect of the two substances (carbon monoxide and cyanide). The identification, carried out in accordance with INTERPOL protocols, encountered serious difficulties in the AM phase primarily due to a language barrier and the lack of any dental or medical information relating to the victims. Secondary identifiers proved to be very useful in corroborating possible identities. As a result of the combined efforts of a team of experts the identitity of each victim was determined and in all cases at least one primary identifier was used in the identification process. The deployment of DVI teams composed of forensic experts from different fields of expertise and well acquainted with DVI procedures, is essential in events involving multiple casualities that may also include foreign victims. The DVI team should intervene not only in PM examinations but also in the collection of AM data for those individuals not accounted for and by helping police in contacting families of missing people.