Shital Sudhakar Nikam, Rajeev Madhusudan Gadgil, Ajay Ramesh Bhoosreddy, Karan Rajendra Shah, Vinayak Umesh Shirsekar
Frontal sinus pattern matching is a useful means of forensic identification. By the use of radiographs forensic scientists have recognized that there are diverse anatomical variations in the structure of the frontal sinus. Radiographs are a diagnostic tool, widely used in dental practices, hospitals and other health disciplines. Most health institutions possess the facility to store radiographs over long periods of time. Frontal sinus pattern matching technique can be applied in cases where ante mortem frontal sinus radiographs are available and dental matching cannot be carried out. Frontal sinus pattern matching technique may also be used to corroborate identifications based on other techniques such as fingerprints, teeth, or circumstantial evidence. The present study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of using the radiographic image of the frontal sinus for personal identification in studied population group. The results concluded that the appearance of the radiographic image of the frontal sinus is unique for each individual. On this evidence it is proposed that frontal sinus pattern matching can be used for personal identification when other methods have failed
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2015;33;1:1-7)
Carlos Arcos, Juan-David Díaz, Kenny Canencio, Diana Rodríguez, Carlos Viveros, Jonathan Vega, Juliana Lores, Gustavo Sinisterra, Wilmer Sepúlveda, Freddy Moreno
Objective: To describe the behavior of 45 discs of dental amalgam of known dimension prepared from three commercially available brands of dental amalgam (Contour® Kerr®–USA, Admix® SDI®–Australia and Nu Alloy® Newstethic®–Colombia) when subjected to the action of high temperatures (200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, 1000°C). It was hoped to establish parameters that could be used for human dental identification in cases of charred, burned or incinerated human remains.
Materials and methods: A pseudo-experimental descriptive in-vitro study was designed to describe the macroscopic physical changes to the surface of 45 discs of pre-prepared amalgam of three commercially available brands exposed to a range of high temperatures.
Results: Characteristic and repetitive physical changes were a noticeable feature of the discs of amalgam of each brand of amalgam subjected to the different temperature ranges. These physical changes included changes in dimensional stability, changes in texture, changes in colour, changes in the appearance of fissures and cracks and changes in the fracture and fragmentation of the sample.
Conclusions: The characteristics of dental amalgam may be of assistance in cases of human identification where charred, burned or incinerated human remains are a feature and where fingerprints or other soft tissue features are unavailable
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2015;33;1:8-18)
Achla Bharti Yadav, Punnya V Angadi, Alka D Kale, Sumit Kumar Yadav
Estimating the time after death is an important aspect of the role of a forensic expert. After death, the body undergoes substantial changes in its chemical and physical composition which can prove useful in providing an indication of the post-mortem interval. The most accurate estimate of the time of death is best achieved early in the post-mortem interval before the many environmental variables are able to affect the result. Whilst dependence on macroscopic observations was the foundation of the past practice, the application of histological techniques is proving to be an increasingly valuable tool in forensic research. The present study was conducted to evaluate the histologic post-mortem changes that take place in human gingival tissues and to correlate these changes with the time interval after death. Thirty one samples of post-mortem human gingival tissues were obtained from a pool of decedents at varied post-mortem intervals (0-8hrs, 8-16hrs, 16-24 hrs). Ante-mortem samples of gingival tissues for comparison were obtained from patients undergoing crown lengthening procedure. Histological changes in the epithelium (cytoplasmic and nuclear) and connective tissue were assessed. The initial epithelial changes observed were homogenization and eosinophilia while cytoplasmic vacuolation and other alterations, including shredding of the epithelium, ballooning, loss of nuclei and suprabasilar split were noticed in late post-mortem interval (16-24 hrs). Nuclear changes such as vacuolation, karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis became increasingly apparent with lengthening post–mortem intervals. Homogenizations of collagen and fibroblast vacuolation were also observed. To conclude; the initiation of decomposition at cellular level appeared within 24 hours of death and other features of decomposition were observed subsequently. Against this background, histological changes in the gingival tissues may be useful in estimating the time of death in the early post-mortem period
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2015;33;1:19-26)
Alix Le Breton, Catherine Chaussain, Christian Herve, Philippe Pirnay
Introduction: Research on biological samples, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), has expanded considerably in recent years and is now seen as a way forward toward the possibilities of new therapies, such as craniofacial bone and tooth repair. The extraction of healthy teeth and their donation for scientific research is now well accepted by both patients and researchers alike. The present situation, as described above, presents a timely opportunity to reflect on the ethical and moral obligations of all of the stakeholders involved in this methodology.
Method: Twenty-two patients who received dental treatment between November 2013 and February 2014 in the dental department of Louis Mourier Hospital in Colombes, France, completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to gather data in respect of giving patients optimal information necessary to acquire informed consent for extraction of teeth to be used for odontological biomedical research.
Results: When patients agree to donate their teeth for purposes of scientific research it is vital that they are properly informed and enabled so that they are able to give consent freely
Conclusions: The risks to patients during dental extractions are minimal. However despite the growing need for a supply of extracted teeth for dental pulp stem cell research it is imperative that any ethical questions that may be raised by potential donors guarantee the security, integrity, and respect of the intentions and aspirations of the donor. To enable the acquisition of true informed consent, this article explores how the dissemination of information relating to biomedical research in the field of dental care must remain as a duty of care and professional ethics.