JFOS vol 31 n. 1 December 2013

December 27, 2022
ISSN 2219-67749
Vol 31
 No 1. December 2013
Editorial Board

Analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs by computer tomography (Cone Beam CT) – 3D recontruction

J. Marques, J. Musse, C. Caetano, F. Corte-Real, A. T. Corte-Real

The use of three-dimensional (3D) analysis of forensic evidence is highlighted in comparison with traditional methods. This three-dimensional analysis is based on the registration of the surface from a bitten object. The authors propose to use Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), which is used in dental practice, in order to study the surface and interior of bitten objects and dental casts of suspects. In this study, CBCT is applied to the analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs, which may be found in a forensic case scenario. 6 different types of foodstuffs were used: chocolate, cheese, apple, chewing gum, pizza and tart (flaky pastry and custard). The food was bitten into and dental casts of the possible suspects were made. The dental casts and bitten objects were registered using an x-ray source and the CBCT equipment iCAT® (Pennsylvania, EUA). The software InVivo5® (Anatomage Inc, EUA) was used to visualize and analyze the tomographic slices and 3D reconstructions of the objects. For each material an estimate of its density was assessed by two methods: HU values and specific gravity. All the used materials were successfully reconstructed as good quality 3D images. The relative densities of the materials in study were compared. Amongst the foodstuffs, the chocolate had the highest density (median value 100.5 HU and 1,36 g/cm3), while the pizza showed to have the lowest (median value -775 HU and 0,39 g/cm3), on both scales. Through tomographic slices and three-dimensional reconstructions it was possible to perform the metric analysis of the bite marks in all the foodstuffs, except for the pizza. These measurements could also be obtained from the dental casts. The depth of the bite mark was also successfully determined in all the foodstuffs except for the pizza. Cone Beam Computed Tomography has the potential to become an important tool for forensic sciences, namely for the registration and analysis of bite marks in foodstuffs that may be found in a crime scene

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2013;31;1:1-7)

Correlation between lip prints and finger prints in sex determination and pattern predominance in 5000 subjects

N. Bansal, S. Sheikh, R. Bansal, S. Pallagati

Fingerprints are considered to be the most reliable criteria for personal identification. In the past decades, lip-print studies (Cheiloscopy) attracted the attention of many scientists as a new tool for human identification in both civil and criminal issues. The present study was undertaken to observe the correlation between lip prints and finger print pattern in sex determination and to determine the pattern predominance in a sample of 5000 individuals. The study was carried out in 5000 individuals in Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of Maharishi Markandeshwar College of Dental Sciences and Research, M.M. University, Mullana. Of the participants, 2500 were males and 2500 females. Lip prints and finger prints of the right hand were collected then studied and analyzed statistically. For lip prints TSUCHIHASHIS Y. classification (1970) was followed; HENRYS classification(1897) was followed for finger prints. Whorls were of a high frequency in males, but females presented with a high frequency of loops. Type I, I’, II lip print pattern was most predominant in females while Type III and Type IV was most predominant in males. The present study described in detail that for both males and females, the most predominant lip-print patterns showed an association with the respective predominant finger print patterns. The establishment of a database of Cheiloscopy and Dactyloscopyis recommended for all individuals in a certain locality, which could be used as a reference in civil litigations and criminal cases. Such studies may be useful particularly in Forensic science and in justice

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2013;31;1:8-14)

Child protection: legal and ethical obligation regarding the report of child abuse in four different countries

I. Cukovic-Bagic, R. R. Welbury, G. Buljan, F. S. Hatibovic-Kofman, E. Nuzzolese

Child protection is the duty of every single member of the society. Health professionals who work with children, such as members of dental team, are in the unique position to recognize signs of physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as (dental) neglect. They should report any suspected case where a child is or may be in need of welfare. The professional responsibility is regulated by legal and ethical obligations. In this preliminary work the authors investigate the legal and ethical Acts, and the similarities vs. differences in obligations regarding reporting child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases in four countries: Croatia, United Kingdom, Italy and Canada. In all four countries all health professionals have a duty to report their suspicion if a child is in a harmful situation. All of them who fail to report, or even neglect or delay to report a suspicion, are liable on conviction to a pecuniary fine which varies from country to country. Depending on the country, if a professional has reasonable grounds to suspect that a child is or may be in need of protection, must report to: CAS (children’s aid society), to CSS (center for social services), to police, to a Juvenile Court, or to the ombudsman. In all four countries, dentists are not asked to diagnose ‘child maltreatment’, but simply report the suspicion with supportive evidence. Ethical obligation comes from medical and dental ethical codes regulated by the Chamber or Council of Dentists. In all four countries legal and ethical obligations in reporting CAN are similar. Differences are related mostly to fines for nonreporting or a delay in reporting. Expanded investigation through other European countries and standard operational procedures is needed, in order to harmonize policies and guidelines for reporting CAN and maximize children protection

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2013;31;1:15-21)

A simple safe, reliable and reproducible mechanism for producing experimental bite marks

S.S. Chinni, A. Al-Ibrahim, A. H. Forgie

With improving technology it should be possible to develop an objective, reliable and valid method that can be undertaken by most forensic Odontologists without recourse to expensive or bulky equipment. One of the main factors that affect the physical appearance of bitemark is the amount of force applied during biting. There is little evidence relating the appearance of a bite mark to the amount of force applied and how that force relates to the biters maximal biteforce. This paper describes simple apparatus that can be used to inflict experimental bites on living subjects reproducibly and with minimal risk. The aims of this study are to report on the development of a mechanical apparatus that produces experimental bitemarks on living human subjects with a known force in a safe, reliable and reproducible manner and to relate the force applied during production of the experimental bitemark to the maximum bite force of the biter. Maximum bite force of one of the authors was determined as 324N. Experimental bitemarks were inflicted on living subjects with known weights. Weights of up to 10kg were well tolerated by the subjects. The relation between forces used to inflict bites and the maximum bite force of the author is reported, with 10kg being approximately one third of the maximum bite force. The apparatus was well tolerated and the results were reliable and reproducible. The results from this study could help in determining the severity of bitemarks. This apparatus could help researchers in developing objective based bitemark analysis techniques

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2013;31;1:22-29)

Assesment of the uniqueness of human dentition

H. Allah Madi, S. Swaid, S. Al-Amad

Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental characteristics has been a reliable, accurate and quick human identification method. This is based on the assumption that each individual’s set of teeth is unique; however, there is little evidence to support this assumption. This research aimed to determine the uniqueness of basic dental features in a cohort of multinational dental patients. Dental charts were retrieved from the archives of the College of Dentistry at the University of Sharjah. Dental patterns were coded into letters representing basic dental characteristics, and entered into a computer program that was written specifically for analysing the results of this research. Two thousand dental charts were included in this research; the average age of the sample was 31.9 years (11–87 years). The male:female ratio was 1.4:1 from 55 nationalities. One thousand one hundred and fifty-nine dental charts (57.95%) had absolutely unique dental patterns. The remaining charts (n=841 [42.05%]) were found to have identical patterns with others, the most common of which was ‘all virgin’ teeth (n=482 [24.1%]). Introducing a single dental modification dropped this percentage to 1.05%. This percentage was further narrowed down to 0.7% when the gender variable was introduced to the comparison. The results of this research support the assumption that dental characteristics show a diversity that is useful for human identification, even when those characteristics are recorded in their simplest forms