JFOS vol 30 n. 1 July 2012

December 23, 2022
ISSN 2219-67749
Vol 30
n. 1 July 2012
Editorial Board
Contents

Forensic odontology in the Disaster Victim Identification process

P. Pittayapat, J. Reinhilde, E. De Valck, D. Vandermeulen, G. Willems

Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2012;30 (1):1-12)

Injuries to the head and face in Brazilian adolescents and teenagers victims of  non-natural deaths

A. Leite Cavalcanti, C. Barros de Alenca, I. Sant’Anna Araujo Rodrigues, M. Suenya de Almeida Pinto, A. F. Cabral Xavier, C. Leite Cavalcanti, A. M. Gondim Valenciq

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of injuries to the head and face in adolescent and teenager victims of non-natural deaths. A retrospective study was undertaken by the analysis of medical forensic reports obtained from medical forensic examinations performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine of the city of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil, between January 2003 and December 2007. From a total of 607 reports issued during this time span, the study sample consisted of 423 reports (69.6%) referring to adolescents and teenagers of both genders, aged 12 to 18 years, who were confirmed to have  died from external causes. The causes of death were encoded according to the Chapter XX of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). The majority of victims were 17 year old males (25.8%). Firearms (33.3%) and transport accidents (32.2%) were the most common causes of death, with boys showing a 3.7 times greater likelihood of getting killed by firearms than girls. There was statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of transport accidents and gender. The majority of victims (71.6%) presented with multiple injuries throughout the body. There was statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of transport accidents and the presence of multiple injuries. A high percentage of the victims presented with injuries to the head and face. There was statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of transport accidents and the presence of injury to the head. Fatal gunshot wounds and transport accidents were the main causes of death of male adolescents and teenagers. The victims presented with multiple injuries, especially to the head and face, and the mandible was the most frequently injured facial bone

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2012;30 (1):12-21)

The tooth for molecular analysis and identification : a forensic approach

A.Corte-Real, M.J.Anjos, D.N. Vieira, J.J. Gamero

The aim of this study is to optimize laboratory preparation of teeth for DNA identification. By sectioning the tooth topographically into two different radicular portions, it was analyzed whether these portions of mineralized tissue differ in the quantity and quality of DNA they contain. 25 teeth were subject to different experimental conditions and total DNA was quantified for each individual tooth’s radicular portion: apical and remaining root, according to a 2003 study by Gaytemenn and Sweet. We verified, with statistically significant figures, that the apical portion of the tooth is that which contains the greatest quantity of DNA. Different analytical procedures were studied for various polymorphic markers to evaluate the quality of the DNA. We concluded that the tooth is topographically distinct in both DNA quantity and quality. The tooth’s apical portion is the preferential choice in sample preparation of dental mineralized tissue for molecular analysis and identification

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2012;30 (1):22-28)

Cementum made more visual

Shukla, D.P. Vinuth, S. V. Sowmya, M.B. Jeevan, Alka D Kale, S. Hallikerimath

Dental cementum is a specialized calcified structure covering the root of a tooth. This study aims to investigate cementum using various stains which can be exceedingly useful in investigation, observation and diagnosis. 4µm sections of 25 extracted normal teeth, 25 cases of various cemental pathologies and 25 ground sections were stained using cresyl violet, H/E, toluidine blue and periodic acid Schiff and were observed under light and florescence microscopes. Cresyl violet showed best contrast amongst all stains in decalcified and ground sections under light and florescence microscopy. Under the fluorescence microscope, cementum floresced more distinctly than dentin and enamel. Among the cemental pathologies examined, osteoid and cementoid exhibited florescence but cementum and bone did not fluoresce. Incremental lines were prominently visualised with cresyl violet under fluorescent microscopy, which may aid in forensic determination of age. The present results demonstrate that cementum in normal decalcified teeth and cemento-osseous lesions, could be observed best using cresyl violet stain under florescence microscopy

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2012;30 (1):29-36)

Sex determination by linear measurements of palatal bones and skull base

N. Correia Lima, O. Fortes de Oliveira, C. Sassi, A. Picapedra, L. Francesquini Jnr, E. Daruge Jnr

Genetically determined sexual dimorphism is not restricted to reproductive organs. All body structures show sexual differences which emerge during puberty and persist lifelong. The aim of this study is to obtain a reliable method for sex determination through the analysis of linear measurements of palate bones and skull base. One hundred skulls of both sexes, 50 from males and 50 from females, aged between 22 and 55 years, from the São Gonçalo Cemetery of Cuiabá, capital of Mato Grosso state, Brazil, were analyzed. Distances between  the incisive foramen, right and left greater palatine foramens and the basion were measured with a digital caliper. Finally, data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Measurements showed significant sexual dimorphism, except the distance between the right and the left greater palatine foramens. The superior expression of sex dimorphism corresponded to the distance from the basion to the incisive foramen. The authors obtained two mathematical models for sex determination, with a reliability rate of 63% and 65% respectively

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2012;30 (1):37-43)

The variability of lower third molar development in Northeast Malaysian population with application to age estimation

Johan, M.F. Khamis, N.Sk. Abdul Jamal, B. Ahmad, E.S. Mahanani

This study aimed to assess the variability of the lower third molar (tooth 38 and 48) development in Northeast Malaysian population with respect to the side of dentition, to generate age prediction models and to compare the outcome with other studies. A total of 1080 orthopantomograms of Northeast Malaysian population aged between 14 and 25 years (540 males and 540 females) from the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia’s archive which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and the maturity stages of toothth 38 and 48 were scored using Demirjian’s stages (A-H). The findings showed a wide variation of the development of lower third molars in the Northeast Malaysian population. The roots developed earlier in males than in females. The development of the dentition on opposite sides of the mandible was synchronously in females and males. A multiple regression analysis shows that 71.1% of variance in age was explained by sex and developmental stage of tooth 48. An age prediction model was generated from the regression analysis: [Age = 7.117 + 1.907*(stage of tooth 48) – 0.432*(sex)] with mean prediction errors between -0.17 to 3.14 years. The obtained data in the current study are useful for references and determining age of unidentified human remains for identification investigation