JFOS vol 28 n. 1 Dec 2010

December 23, 2022
ISSN 2219-67749
Vol 28
n. 1 Dec 2010
Editorial Board

Survival of batch numbers within dental implants following incineration as an aid to identification

J.  Berketa, H. James, V. Marino

Dental implants have become a popular choice of treatment in replacing individual lost teeth or entire dentitions. The physical properties of high corrosion resistance, high structural strength and high melting point, suggest the retention of intact implants following most physical assaults. As the implants are machine made, they lack the individualisation required for their use as identifiers of the deceased, however the Straumann™ Company (Waldenburg, Switzerland) has recently released information that within the chamber of their implants they have laser etched batch numbers. The number of implants with the same batch number varies from 24 to 2400. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the batch number was still identifiable following intense heat exposure in a furnace. A Straumann™ Standard Plus 3.3 x 8 mm implant, with no healing cap nor abutment attached was incinerated to 1125 degrees Celsius. Another Straumann™ Standard Plus 3.3 x 8 mm implant was also incinerated in the same way as the first implant but with an abutment attached. The results indicated that the first implant had totally oxidised within the internal chamber whilst the second implant following the removal of the abutment revealed an intact identifiable batch number. If the companies constructing implants were to place individual serial numbers rather than batch numbers on these implants then the potential exists for a new approach to be established for the identification of the deceased

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2010;28;1:1-4)

Matching simulated antemortem and post-mortem dental radiographs from human skulls by dental students and experts: testing skills forpattern recognition

A. Wenzel, A. Richards, J. Heidmann

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of undergraduate dental students to match simulated ante- and post-mortem radiographs in human skulls with experts as controls for the 1)number of post-mortem images needed for a match, 2)accuracy of the matches, and 3)time spent for a match. A film bitewing was recorded in each side of 51 dentate dry human skulls (a.m.-images) and digital images of the teeth were recorded using a sensor (p.m.-images). 102 correctly matching and 102 non-matching image pairs were constructed. Ten students and three experts scored the image pairs as: certain match, certain non-match, or uncertain. None of the experts but half of the students made false positive scores. Half of the students performed just as accurately as the experts. All students (except one who made 8 FPs) asked for more p.m.-images than did the experts before deciding on a match, however, all students, but one, also spent less time per image pair than did the experts before deciding on a match (P<0.001).
This simulated test sample may identify dental students and dentists with abilities for pattern recognition and thus help in the decision on who might be included as part of a forensic dental team when extra help is needed

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2010;28;1:5-12)

Age estimation from dental cementum incremental lines and periodontal disease

P.E.M. Dias , T. Beaini, R.F.H. Melani

Age estimation by counting incremental lines in cementum added to the average age of tooth eruption is considered an accurate method by some authors, while others reject it stating weak correlation between estimated and actual age. The aim of this study was to evaluate this technique and check the influence of periodontal disease on age estimates by analyzing both the number of cementum lines and the correlation between cementum thickness and actual age on freshly extracted teeth. Thirty one undecalcified ground cross sections of approximately 30 µm, from 25 teeth were prepared, observed, photographed and measured. Images were enhanced by software and counts were made by one observer, and the results compared with two control-observers. There was moderate correlation ((r)=0.58) for the entire sample, with mean error of 9.7 years. For teeth with periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.03 with a mean error of 22.6 years. For teeth without periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.74 with mean error of 1.6 years. There was correlation of 0.69 between cementum thickness and known age for the entire sample, 0.25 for teeth with periodontal problems and 0.75 for teeth without periodontal pathologies. The technique was reliable for periodontally sound teeth, but not for periodontally diseased teeth

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2010;28;1:13-21)

Sex discrimination potential of permanent maxillary molar cusp diameters

P. J. Macaluso Jr 

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the potential usefulness of permanent maxillary molar cusp diameters for sex discrimination of poorly preserved skeletal remains. Cusp diameters were measured from standardized occlusal view photographs in a sample of black South Africans consisting of 130 males and 105 females. Results demonstrated that all cusp dimensions for both first and second maxillary molars exhibited significant sexual dimorphism (p < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate discriminant function equations permitted low to moderate classification accuracy in discriminating sex (58.3%-73.6%). The allocation accuracies for cusp diameter measurements were as high as, and even surpassed, those observed for conventional crown length and breadth dimensions of the same teeth. The most accurate result (73.6%, with a sex bias of only 0.5%) was obtained when all cusp diameters from both maxillary molars were used concurrently. However, only slightly less accurate results (~70.0%) were achieved when selected dimensions from only one of the molars, or even a single cusp, were utilized. Although not as reliable at predicting sex as other skeletal elements in black South Africans, the derived odontometric standards can be used with highly fragmentary skeletal material, as well as immature remains in which crown formation of the maxillary molars is complete

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2010;28;1:22-31) 

Dental age estimation based on third molar eruption in first nation people of Canada

A. Olze, B.R. Pynn, V. Kraul, R. Schulz, A. Heinecke, H. Pfeiffer, A. Schmeling

Forensic age estimation of living subjects has become an increasing focus of interest in modern society. One main criterion for dental age estimation in the relevant age group is the evaluation of third molar eruption. The importance of ethnic variation in dental development requires population specific data for dental age evaluation. In the present study, we determined the stages of third molar eruption in 347 female and 258 male First Nations people of Canada aged 11 to 29 years based on radiological evidence from 605 conventional orthopantomograms. The results presented here provide data on the age of alveolar, gingival, and complete eruption of the third molars in the occlusal plane that can be used for forensic estimation of the minimum and most probable ages of investigated individuals

(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2010;28;1:32-38)

Dental anomalies and their value in human identification : a case report

E.C. Martins, C.L.R. Tinoco, F.B. Prado, E. Daruge Jr, E. Daruge, P.H.F. Caria

Forensic odontology and anthropology provide valuable support with regard to human identification. In some cases, when soft tissue is destroyed, carbonized or absent for whatever reason, bones and teeth become the only source of information about the identity of the deceased. In human identification, anything different, such as variation from normality, becomes an important tool when trying to establish the identity of the deceased. This paper illustrates a positive identification case achieved by the diagnosis of an anomaly of tooth position, with confirmation using skull-photo superimposition. Even though forensic science presents modern techniques, in this particular case, the anomalous position of the canine played a key role on the identification, showing that the presence of a forensic dentist on the forensic team can be of great value