C.N. Stephan and S.J. Murphy.
An understanding of the structural relationships between the soft tissue anatomy of the face and the hard tissue anatomy of the skull is significant for craniofacial identification methods employed in forensic anthropology and forensic dentistry. Typically, mouth characteristics have been predicted from the teeth but this proves problematic in edentulous skulls. Some clue may, however, be provided by non-dental features. This study investigates the usefulness of the infraorbital and the mental foramen position for determining mouth width and additionally reports on accuracy tests using two other recently proposed methods that depend on the teeth: i) Krogman and İşcan’s radiating mouth width prediction guideline; and ii) Stephan and Henneberg’s 75% rule. Dissections of nine human cadavers indicate that the most accurate mouth width prediction method is the 75% rule (mean error of -2.4mm) followed by the distance between the infraorbital foramen (mean error of -3.3mm). Krogman and İşcan’s radiating method, as interpreted by Wilkinson, underestimated mouth width by 7.3mm on average, while the distance between the mental foramen underestimated mouth width by 12.9mm. These results suggest that the infraorbital foramen can be used as a relatively good predictor of mouth width in edentulous skulls, however, the 75% rule should be given precedence if the dentition is present.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2008;26:2-7)
E. Nuzzolese, S. Lusito, B. Solarino, G. Di Vella.
Dental implants for prosthetic rehabilitation with fixed crown or mobile partial/total dentures is a very common oral treatment among the population in Italy as elsewhere. There is a great number of implant systems of different designs. However, a catalogue of radiographic images and a description of the dental implants available in Italy would be useful in order to identify the manufacturer and the type of implant encountered in forensic casework. When an unidentified body is found with one or more implants in the jaws, and no dental record is available, clues gleaned from the type of implants used could give direction to the investigation.
In this study Italian implant manufactures were contacted and asked to provide specimen implants. Digital radiographs were taken of all the implants donated at 0º, 30º, and 60 º horizontal rotation, combined with -20º, -10º, 0º, +10º, and +20º vertical inclination relative to the radiographic beam and the X-ray sensor. A total of 15 images per implant were taken and examined to identify consistent, unique features that would aid in implant recognition. Only those observations made from radiographs between -10º and +10º vertical inclination would ever be used for definite identification of any implant.
The information from this study should be considered a survey of the commercial distribution of dental implants in Italy through their digital radiographic images. It is also a starting point for a wider geographical evaluation of different manufacturers in other countries and continents. The radiographic images provided should help both the forensic odontologist and the prosthodontist to identify pre-existing implants which they may discover from their radiographic images.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2008;26:8-11)
R.F.Silva, S.D. Pereira, F.B. Prado, E. Daruge (Jnr), E. Daruge
The identification of unknown human by smile photographs that show specific characteristics of each individual has found wide acceptance all over the world. Therefore this paper shows this situation reporting different cases which smile photograph analysis were crucial to determine the positive identification of unidentified human bodies. All the cases were subjected to personal identification by photographs of smile including one adult male found in an advanced stage of decomposition, one adult female disappeared during an ecotourism trip, and one carbonized body of a male individual found in a forest region. During the autopsy the photographs of the smile were used by comparison of the ante and postmortem images gave accurate and useful information not only about dental state but also the anatomical features surrounding the upper and lower anterior dental arches. This method is not time-consuming and also has the advantage of allowing extraoral dental examination. It is also recommended when there is a need to provide quantitative data for a forensic identification based on these structures.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2008;26:12-17)
Fouad Ayoub, Mohamad Yehia, Aline Rizk, Mohamad Al-Tannir, Anis Abi- Farah, Ghassan Hamadeh
Patients born to Lebanese parents and grandparents, visiting two private practice orthodontic clinics, with normal occlusion and no need for any kind of orthodontic treatment during a six month period and satisfying inclusion criteria, were asked permission to include their lateral cephalometric radiographs in this study. Sixty three individuals met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen cephalometric measurements were taken (seven linear and nine angular) were analyzed on each radiograph. Measurements were compared between genders using student’s t-test.
The study population included 31 females and 32 males with a mean (±SD) of 21.6 (±4.0) and 21.3 (±3.9) years for males and females respectively. Men had significantly larger skeletal linear measurements: the mandibular base menton to gonion (Me-Go) (p = 0.027), the total mandibular length of condylon to gnathion (Co–Gn) (p = 0.009) and significantly larger angular measurements: sella to nasion to subspinal point (S–N–SS) (p = 0.006), and sella to nasion to supramental point (S–N-Spm) (p = 0.009).
The results of this study demonstrated that male skeletal linear and angular measurements are significantly larger in Lebanese
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2008;26:18-23)
Rai, K. Krishan, J. Kaur , S.C. Anand.
Age estimation is an important aspect of forensic investigation and is considered as one of the “Big Four” of Forensic Anthropology. One hundred and twenty (120) cephalograms of individuals aged 7-20 years were examined with reference to mandibular body length (distance between Gonion and Gnathion) mandibular length (distance between Co and Gn) and mandibular height (distance between Co and Go). An attempt has been made to assess the utility and dependability of these three linear parameters for age estimation. The mandibular body length, ramus height and mandibular length were increased by 2.23, 3.26, 4.26 mm/years respectively. There are no significant differences in mandibular linear growth between the two sexes though the female mandible has a higher growth rate compared to males. These parameters might prove to be of importance in age determination for medico-legal purposes.