THICKNESS OF THE DENTAL (RADICULAR) CEMENTUM: A PARAMETER FOR ESTIMATING AGE
V. Pinchi, A.L. Forestieri, M. Calvitti
The present study used 127 extracted teeth from people aged 16 to 90 years old. The aim of this research was to verify the reliability of the method using a single dental parameter based on the correlation of the radicular cementum thickness and the chronological age of the subject. The thickness was measured both on the lingual side and on the vestibular side of the tooth, at two different levels: apex and one third of the root length from the apex. The data were reported through a Cartesian graph with the X-axis showing the cementum thickness and the Y-axis showing the subject’s age. The correlation between age and the increase of the cementum thickness is more statistically evident when the measurement is taken at the apex (R2=0.67), in comparison with the measurement taken at approximately one third of the root length from the apex (R2=0.56).
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2007;25:1-6)
IDENTIFICATION OF SEX USING CRANIAL BASE MEASUREMENTS
L. Francesquini Júnior, M.A. Francesquini, B.M. De La Cruz, S.D.R. Pereira, G.M.B. Ambrosano, C.M.R. Barbosa, E. Daruge Júnior, A.A. Del Bel Cury, E. Daruge
It is well known that the skull provides elements for sex identification. Twenty-two bones form the cephalic cranium and they are divided into neurocranium and splancnocranium. This research aimed to study different characteristics between skulls from both sexes by evaluating the following measurements: mastoid notch to incisive foramen (right and left side); mastoid notch to mastoid notch; and incisive foramen to basion. In order to do so, two hundred skulls were selected (100 males and 100 females), with information about the age of the subjects (20-55 years old), sex and ethnic group known according to records at the Imaculada Conceicao Cemetery, located in the city of Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Measurements were taken using a digital calliper. The results were subjected to a statistical analysis (logistic regression and discriminate function) and showed dimorphic characteristics within the measurements. A formula with 79.9% accuracy was established for sex identification (logito = 25.2772 – 0.1601 x incisive foramen to basion – 0.0934 x mastoid notch – mastoid notch). The authors have concluded that the method is efficient and suitable for anthropology and forensic purposes. The research also showed that the analysis may be carried out using a practical computer program.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2007;25:7-11)
DENTAL DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY IN THE FORENSIC SCIENCES: TWO CASE PRESENTATIONS
K.Nicopoulou-Karayianni, A.G.Mitsea, K.Horner
Dentomaxillofacial radiology is a useful tool in forensic science to reveal characteristics of the structures of the dentomaxillofacial region. Postmortem radiographs are valuable to the forensic odontologist for comparison with antemortem radiographs, which are the most consistent part of the antemortem records that can be transmitted during forensic examination procedures. By using dentomaxillofacial radiology we can, therefore, give answers to problems dealing with identification cases, mass disasters and dental age estimation. We present the contribution of dentomaxillofacial radiology to the forensic sciences through two cases of deceased persons, where identification was based on information provided by radiographs. The right performance, interpretation and reportage of dentomaxillofacial radiological examination and procedures can be extremely valuable in solving forensic problems.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2007;25:12-16)
DATA TRANSMISSION IN DENTAL IDENTIFICATION OF MASS DISASTER VICTIMS
S. Salo, H. Salo, A. Liisanantti, J. Reponen
Dental evidence, especially from radiographs, has been found to be an effective method in personal identification. Previously, it has been shown that wireless personal digital assistants (PDA) can be used to transfer digitized radiographs. The purpose of this study was to set up a secure and reliable mobile connection for transferring dental digital images for disaster victim identification, and to test this new way of working in Phuket, Thailand, following the December 2004 Asian Tsunami disaster. Material and methods: Digital dental radiographs and clinical images were transferred in two separate sets using secured data transmission from a server in Finland to PDA terminals in Thailand. The mean size of the images in test 1 and test 2 were 90.7 kB and 88.1 kB, respectively. Results: The mean speed of the transmission was 3.7 kB/s with the Nokia 9500 and 3.4 kB/ s with the Qtek 2020i. The quality of all the pictures was found to be good enough for dental identification purposes. Conclusions: Wireless personal digital assistants (PDA) together with data secure transmission of digital clinical information could be used in order to assist in disaster victim identification in areas where GSM cellular networks are available.
(J Forensic Odontostomatol 2007;25:17-22)
EVALUATION OF TWO DENTAL IDENTIFICATION COMPUTER SYSTEMS: DAVID and WinID3
S.H. Al-Amad, J.G. Clement, M.J. McCullough, A. Morales, A.J. Hill
Human identification, by comparing dental characteristics, is considered to be one of the most reliable, accurate and rapid methods of resolving the identity of visually un-identifiable deceased persons. In recent decades computer programs have evolved to aid odontologists by suggesting records that have similar dental features. The aim of the present study was to compare two of those programs; Disaster And Victim IDentification (DAVID) and WinID3 in terms of effectiveness, accuracy and speed of data entry and to further compare them with the efficiency of the classical method of manually matching postmortem and antemortem dental records. An open disaster was simulated whereby 52 fragmented remains made of acrylic replicas and 77 provisional victims were represented on Interpol F2 postmortem and antemortem forms. The results assessed were the first seven possible matches made by each program. Manual matching of dental characteristics performed better than both programs (P<0.001) yielding 29 identifications. Eleven and six positive matches were the result of the DAVID and the WinID3 programs respectively (P=0.185). Data entry was quicker for WinID3. It was concluded that both programs are still not as accurate as the time-consuming manual matching method. The difference in performance between the DAVID and the WinID3 programs was attributed to the inclusion of more comparable dental characteristics, the inclusion of the type of dentition (deciduous or permanent) and the weighting of those characteristics by the DAVID program.